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Isnin, 15 Mac 2010

Polemik perkahwinan gadis bawah umur?

Posted by Abu Hannan On 5:59:00 PTG 10 comments

Audio berkenaan umur A'isyah Ummul Mukminin ketika berkahwin dengan Rasulullah s.a.w

 
gambar hiasan

Perkahwinan bawah umur yang kini mungkin berlaku sedikit perkembangan dinusantara agak menggusarkan beberapa pihak. Bagi yang menginginkannya, alasan mereka adalah Sunnah Nabi. Persoalan yang timbul, berapakah sebenarnya umur Ummul Mukminin puteri kepada Sayyidina Abu Bakar r.a ketika Rasulullah menikahinya? Kajian telah dilakukan oleh pakar dan sekarang, mari kita dengarkan sedutan audio ini.

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Sedikit tulisan mengenai polemik tersebut.


What was Ayesha’s (ra) Age at the Time of Her Marriage?
What was Ayesha’s (ra) age at the time of her marriage?
It is normally believed that she was nine years old at the time of her marriage with Mohammad (sws) was consummated. I do think it was according to the traditions of the Arab culture, as otherwise people would have objected to this marriage. But unfortunately, the modern day man is not satisfied with an answer as simple as that.
 gambar hiasan (syeikh Puji menikahi gadis 11 tahun di Indonesia)
Reply1
To begin with, I think it is the responsibility of all those who believe that marrying a girl as young as nine years old was an accepted norm of the Arab culture, to provide at least a few examples to substantiate their point of view. I have not yet been able to find a single dependable instance in the books of Arab history where a girl as young as nine years old was given away in marriage. Unless such examples are given, we do not have any reasonable grounds to believe that it really was an accepted norm.
In my opinion, the age of Ayesha (ra) has been grossly mis-reported in the ahadith. Not only that, I think that the narratives reporting this event are not only highly unreliable but also that on the basis of other historical data, the event reported, is quite an unlikely happening. Let us look at the issue from an objective stand point. My reservations in accepting the narratives, on the basis of which, Ayeshas (ra) age at the time of her marriage with the Prophet (pbuh) is held to be nine years are:
  • Most of these narratives are reported only by Hisham ibn `urwah reporting on the authority of his father. An event as well known as the one being reported, should logically have been reported by more people than just one, two or three.
  • It is quite strange that no one from Medinah, where Hisham ibn `urwah lived the first seventy one years of his life has narrated the event, even though in Medinah his pupils included people as well known as Malik ibn Anas. All the narratives of this event have been reported by narrators from Iraq, where Hisham is reported to have had shifted after living in Medinah for seventy one years.
  • Tehzibu'l-tehzib, one of the most well known books on the life and reliability of the narrators of the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) reports that according to Yaqub ibn Shaibah: "narratives reported by Hisham are reliable except those that are reported through the people of Iraq". It further states that Malik ibn Anas objected on those narratives of Hisham which were reported through people of Iraq. (vol 11, pg 48 - 51)
  • Mizanu'l-ai`tidal, another book on the narrators of the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) reports that when he was old, Hisham's memory suffered quite badly. (vol 4, pg 301 - 302)
  • According to the generally accepted tradition, Ayesha (ra) was born about eight years before Hijrah. But according to another narrative in Bukhari (kitabu'l-tafseer) Ayesha (ra) is reported to have said that at the time Surah Al-Qamar, the 54th chapter of the Qur'an, was revealed, "I was a young girl". The 54th surah of the Qur'an was revealed nine years before Hijrah. According to this tradition, Ayesha (ra) had not only been born before the revelation of the referred surah, but was actually a young girl (jariyah), not an infant (sibyah) at that time. Obviously, if this narrative is held to be true, it is in clear contradiction with the narratives reported by Hisham ibn `urwah. I see absolutely no reason that after the comments of the experts on the narratives of Hisham ibn `urwah, why we should not accept this narrative to be more accurate.
  • According to a number of narratives, Ayesha (ra) accompanied the Muslims in the battle of Badr and Uhud. Furthermore, it is also reported in books of hadith and history that no one under the age of 15 years was allowed to take part in the battle of Uhud. All the boys below 15 years of age were sent back. Ayesha's (ra) participation in the battle of Badr and Uhud clearly indicate that she was not nine or ten years old at that time. After all, women used to accompany men to the battle fields to help them, not to be a burden on them.
  • According to almost all the historians Asma (ra), the elder sister of Ayesha (ra) was ten years older than Ayesha (ra). It is reported in Taqri'bu'l-tehzi'b as well as Al-bidayah wa'l-nihayah that Asma (ra) died in 73 hijrah when she was 100 years old. Now, obviously if Asma (ra) was 100 years old in 73 hijrah she should have been 27 or 28 years old at the time of hijrah. If Asma (ra) was 27 or 28 years old at the time of hijrah, Ayesha (ra) should have been 17 or 18 years old at that time. Thus, Ayesha (ra), if she got married in 1 AH (after hijrah) or 2 AH, was between 18 to 20 years old at the time of her marriage.
  • Tabari in his treatise on Islamic history, while mentioning Abu Bakr (ra) reports that Abu Bakr had four children and all four were born during the Jahiliyyah -- the pre Islamic period. Obviously, if Ayesha (ra) was born in the period of jahiliyyah, she could not have been less than 14 years in 1 AH -- the time she most likely got married.
  • According to Ibn Hisham, the historian, Ayesha (ra) accepted Islam quite some time before Umar ibn Khattab (ra). This shows that Ayesha (ra) accepted Islam during the first year of Islam. While, if the narrative of Ayesha's (ra) marriage at seven years of age is held to be true, Ayesha (ra) should not have been born during the first year of Islam.
  • Tabari has also reported that at the time Abu Bakr planned on migrating to Habshah (8 years before Hijrah), he went to Mut`am -- with whose son Ayesha (ra) was engaged -- and asked him to take Ayesha (ra) in his house as his son's wife. Mut`am refused, because Abu Bakr had embraced Islam, and subsequently his son divorced Ayesha (ra). Now, if Ayesha (ra) was only seven years old at the time of her marriage, she could not have been born at the time Abu Bakr decided on migrating to Habshah. On the basis of this report it seems only reasonable to assume that Ayesha (ra) had not only been born 8 years before hijrah, but was also a young lady, quite prepared for marriage.
  • According to a narrative reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, after the death of Khadijah (ra), when Khaulah (ra) came to the Prophet (pbuh) advising him to marry again, the Prophet (pbuh) asked her regarding the choices she had in her mind. Khaulah said: "You can marry a virgin (bikr) or a woman who has already been married (thayyib)". When the Prophet (pbuh) asked about who the virgin was, Khaulah proposed Ayesha's (ra) name. All those who know the Arabic language, are aware that the word "bikr" in the Arabic language is not used for an immature nine year old girl. The correct word for a young playful girl, as stated earlier is "Jariyah". "Bikr" on the other hand, is used for an unmarried lady, and obviously a nine year old is not a "lady".
  • According to Ibn Hajar, Fatimah (ra) was five years older than Ayesha (ra). Fatimah (ra) is reported to have been born when the Prophet (pbuh) was 35 years old. Thus, even if this information is taken to be correct, Ayesha (ra) could by no means be less than 14 years old at the time of hijrah, and 15 or 16 years old at the time of her marriage.

These are some of the major points that go against accepting the commonly known narrative regarding Ayesha's (ra) age at the time of her marriage.
In my opinion, neither was it an Arab tradition to give away girls in marriage at an age as young as nine or ten years, nor did the Prophet (pbuh) marry Ayesha (ra) at such a young age. The people of Arabia did not object to this marriage, because it never happened in the manner it has been narrated.

I hope I have been of some help.
Best Regards

10 Komen:

boleh klik di link utk mengetahui selanjutnya..

ustaz pernah cerita ttg ini waktu kuliah seerah
sungguh, rindu sgt kuliah seerah~

Alhamdulillah! TQ Sir for this post! This I like, Tahniah! Tahniah!

Saya suka dgn kupasan sejenis ini kerana bukan shj detailsnya dan saintifiknya tetapi kerana subjectnya itu melibatkan tatacara peradaban manusia dan Islam.

Saya memang tidak bersetuju utk anak2 gadis kecil dibawah umur dibenarkan dikahwini tanpa dgn izin dan rela dirinya, kecuali dlm keadaan2 tertentu yg mendesak dan terlebih manfaat dilaksanakan perkahwinan itu.

Syabas Tuan, teruskan usaha yg sebegini.

thanks for sharing. pernah terbaca pasal ni jugak. agak kecewa apabila orang kafir sering mengaitkan rasulullah dengan pedofil dengan bergantung kepada hadis yang daif/ragu2 tanpa kajian yang menyeluruh.

salam. thamks utk info yg diberi nih. saya sndri rasa yg x patut kita mnjadikan sunnah rasulullah sbg alasan utk buat perkara camni. and lps baca sndri artikel ni saya rasa lbh byk yg saya xtahu sbnrnya. n saya prnh terbaca jugak dlm akhbar berita harian psl ni, tp info yg diberi mcm bercanggah pulak. apa2 pun, terima kasih utk info yg blh dikongsi bersama

Berhati2 dan kajian semula terhadap sumber dari mana sejarah itu dikutip amat penting dalam memelihara agama kita dari perkara2 yg berunsur menghina, tipu, dan karut.

Sahut seruan tajdid agar Islam bebas dari unsur2 tersebut dan insyaAllah kita tidak lagi beragama hanya berasalkan ikut-ikutan tpi beragama kerana memahaminya...

Terima kasih kepada semua pembaca...

pendapat bahawa rasulullah s.a.w kahwin ngan aisyah masa mudah itukan jelas dari sahih bukhari & muslim..pas2 itifaq ulama 4 mazhab memperakuinya..so mcm mana pandangan saudara?
tp dalam isu kahwin sunnah ini rasenya mmg salah aggap la 2...mereka memandai je kata sunnah, but NAFSU..

NABI LAKUKAN BEGITU ATAS TURUNNYE WAHYU...STIAP PKARE YG DILAKUKAN NABI STLH MNDAPAT WAHYU DRPD ALLAH SWT...SO,KTE MANUSIA YAG X SESEMPURNA NABI,TIDAK DAPAT WAHYU...TP HANYE DPT NUR DAN HIDAYAH..N BLE NK KHWIN SUME,IKUT SUNNAH NABI..SO,NPE WAT AMALAN LAEN,X IKUT SUNNAH???ATAU BDASARKN NAFSU??

Kawin bawah umur perlulah ilmu yang cukup bagi sang suami. keran ilmu yang kurang akan menyebab kan perkahwinan menjadi pincang
http://kepuncakmahligai.com/

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Sabda Baginda SAW ; "Ketahuilah ia (Dajjal) berada di laut Syam atau laut Yaman.. akan datang dari arah timur (lalu menunjukkan dengan tangan baginda).."[Riwayat Muslim]. Daripada Abi Bakr al-Siddiq r.a, sabda Baginda SAW, "Dajjal akan muncul ke bumi dari arah timur bernama KHURASAN." [Riwayat al-Tirmizi]. Daripada Anas bin Malik r.a, sabda Baginda SAW, "Dajjal akan keluar dari kota Yahudi ISFAHAN (Khurasan, IRAN) bersama 70,000 penduduk ISFAHAN". [Fath al-Rabbani Tartib Musnad Ahmad. Ibn Hajar berkata : "Sahih"]. Ibn Kathir berkata, Dajal pada mulanya akan muncul dari ISFAHAN dari sebuah kota Yahudi [al-Nihayah fi al-Fitan wa al-Malahim]. ISFAHAN adalah sebuah bandar terbesar YAHUDI di Iran dan pusat loji nuklear Iran pada masa kini.